• Krasimira Atanasova University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Dimitar Angelski University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria


roughness, waterborne coating, bio-based coating, beech; spruce


This research is part of a study to determine the properties of a multilayer waterborne bio-based coating. The liquid system was applied to spruce (Picea abies Karst.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and beech plywood by brush. The influences of the wood substrate structure and the surface characteristics before coating, the surface treatment before coating, the amount of varnish recommended by the manufacturer, and the number of applied layers on the appearance and roughness of the resulting surfaces were analyzed. The roughness was evaluated by the profile amplitude parameters and the material ratio curve parameters for each of the film formation process phases. It was necessary to apply a two-layer coating on all test surfaces to obtain a good appearance. It was also found that the amount of varnish recommended by the manufacturer is inappropriate when applied to beech and beech plywood. The wood substrate structure and its surface characteristics before coating had a determining influence on the roughness parameters in the last phase of the film formation and on the appearance of the varnished surfaces. The treatment before coating had little effect on the final coating parameters. Roughness parameters suitable for evaluating changes in surface profiles for each of the processing phases were proposed.


Angelski, D., Atanasova, K., 2023. Water permeability and adhesion strength of bio-based coating applied on wood. Drvna industrija (accepted for publishing on August 29, 2023).

Atanasova, K., 2022. Influence of some factors in the formation of varnish coatings on wooden surfaces. Abstract of the PhD thesis. Publishing House at University of Forestry, Sofia, pp. 40, (in Bulgarian).

Cota, H., Ajdinaj, D., Habipi, B., 2017. The influence of machining process on wood surface roughness. Agricultural Sciences 16 (Special issue):7.

Evans, P., 2009. Reducing grain raising during the finishing of wood with water-based coatings. Report. University of British Columbia. Vancouver, Canada, pp. 54.

Gochev, Z., 2018. Wood cutting and cutting tools. Avangard Prima, Sofia, pp. 523, ISBN 978-619-239-047-1 (in Bulgarian).

Gurau, L., 2022. Testing the processing-induced roughness of sanded wood surfaces separated from wood anatomical structure. Forests, 13, 331.

Hamidi, N. A. S. M., Kamaruzzaman, W. M. I. W. M., Nasir, N. A. M., Shaifudin, M. S., Ghazali, M. S. M., 2022. Potential Application of Plant-Based Derivatives as Green Components in Functional Coatings: A Review. Cleaner Materials 4.

ISO 3274:1996. Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments.

ISO 4287:1997. Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters.

ISO 13565-2:1996. Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method; Surfaces having stratified functional properties — Part 2: Height characterization using the linear material ratio curve.

Kavalov, A., Angelski, D., 2015. Alternative methods for friction smoothing of wood surfaces. ISBN 978-954-332-137-7 (in Bulgarian).

Kúdela, J., Mrenica, L., Javorek, L., 2018. The influence of milling and sanding on wood surface morphology. Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen, 60(1): 71−83. http://10.17423/afx.2018.60.1.08

Landry, V., Blanchet, P., Cormier, L. M., 2013. Water-based and solvent-based stains: Impact on the grain raising in Yellow Birch. BioResources 8(2), 1997-2009.

Magoss, E., Molnár, Z., Suri, V., 2019. Еvaluating of wetting-induced effects on the surface stability of sanded wood. Wood research 64 (3), 401-410.

Müller, B., Poth, U., 2011. Coatings Formulation. Vincentz Network, pp. 287, ISBN 978-3-86630-891-6.

Ramananantoandro, T., Eyma, F., Belloncle, C., Rincé, S., Irle, M., 2018. Effects of machining parameters on raised grain occurring after the application of water-based finishes. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 76, 1323-1333.

Sandak J., Martino, N., 2005. Wood surface roughness – what is it? Proceedings of the 17th International Wood Machining Seminar (IWMS 17). Rosenheim, Germany, 26-28 pp.

Salcă, E. A., Krystofiak, T., Lis, B., Mazela, B., Proszyk, S., 2016. Some coating properties of black alder wood as a function of varnish type and application method. BioResourses 11(3), 7580-7594.

Slabejova, G., Šmidriaková, M., Moring. M., 2017. Surface roughness of water-based finishes on aspen poplar wood. Ann. WULS-SGGW, For and Wood Technol. 98: 126-131.




How to Cite

Atanasova, K., & Angelski, D. (2023). ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS OF BIO-BASED COATING APPLIED TO WOOD SURFACES . Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen, 65(2), 77–88. Retrieved from