THE EFFECT OF THE COVID-19 CRISIS ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN THE ENTERPRISES IN FOREST-BASED SECTOR IN SLOVAKIA
Keywords:empoyee motivation, motivation factors, forest economy, wood-processing industry, Slovak Republic
The aim of the paper is to define the level of motivation of employees in the enterprises in the forest-based sector in Slovakia in time, namely before the COVID-19 crisis and after the crisis, and subsequently to determine the most important motivation factors. Data were obtained through quantitative research. The research sample consisted of 920 respondents working in forest enterprises and 1,494 working in wood-processing enterprises. Following the multivariate analysis of dispersion, the employees' motivation level in the enterprises in the forest-based sector was defined and compared. The recognition of an insignificant change in group motivation factors is the result of the research. Another result is the realization that even with the essential motivation factors, there were no significant changes due to the impact of COVID-19. At the same time, they were balanced within the sectors. The contribution of the paper is comparing the level of motivation and motivation factors in the forest-based industry over time and the subsequent possibility of designing managerial models of motivation.
Al-Madi, F. N., Assal, H., Shrafat, F., Zaglat, D., 2017. The impact of employee motivation on organizational commitment. European Journal of Business and Management 9(15), 134–145.
Arnania-Kepuladze, T., 2010. Gender stereotypes and gender feature of job motivation: differences or similarity? Problems and Perspectives in Management 8(2), 84–93.
Bajzikova, L., Bajzik, P., 2020. Mobility and working opportunities in the EU and Slovakia. Management-Journal of Contemporary Management Issues 25(1), 103–115. https://doi.org/10.30924/mjcmi.25.1.6
Bechter, B., Brandl, B., Lehr, A., 2022. The role of the capability, opportunity, and motivation of firms for using human resource analytics to monitor employee performance: A multi-level analysis of the organisational, market, and country context. New Technology, Wodk and Employment 37(3), 398–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12239
Bogdanovic, M., Durian, J., Cingula, D., 2016. HRM choices for business strategy support: How to resolve the most important HRM strategic dilemmas? In 5th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development-Human Resources Development : proceedings of the conference. 2016, pp. 429–439.
Casuneanu, C., 2011. The Romanian employee motivation system: An empirical analysis. International Journal of Mathematical models and Methods in Applied Science 5(5), 931–938.
Chan, J.F.W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.H., To, K.K.W., Chu, H., Yang, J., Tsoi, H.W., 2020. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. The Lancet 395(10223), 514–523.
Close, D., Martinus, N., 2015. Generational motivation and preference for reward and recognition. Journal of Governance and Regulation 4(3), 259–270.
Copuš, L., Šajgalíková, H., Wojčák, E., 2019. Organizational culture and its motivational potential in manufacturing industry: subculture perspective. Procedia Manufacturing 32, 360–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2019.02.226
De Vaus, D., 2002. Analyzing social science data: 50 key problems in data analysis. SAGE Publications, London.
Demartino, R., Barbato, R., 2003. Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: explor-ing family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators. Journal of Business Venturing 18(6), 815–832.
Drašković, D., Průša, P., Čičević, S., Jovčić, S., 2020. The implementation of digital ergonomics modeling to design a human-friendly working process in a postal branch. Applied Sciences 10(24), 9124. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249124
Forestportal, 2015. Lesné hospodárstvo. [WWW Document]. URL http://184.108.40.206/lesne-hospodarstvo/politika-legislativa/medzinarodna/Pages/drevospracujuci-priemysel.aspx
Gottwald, D., Lejsková, P., Švadlenka, L., Rychnovská, V., 2015. Evaluation and management of intellectual capital at pardubice airport: Case study. Procedia Economics and Finance 34, 121–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(15)01609-3
Hidayah, A. K., 2018. The influence of individual characteristics, and leadership, through work motivation and job satisfaction on employee performance of east Kalimantan forestry agency office. International Journal of Accounting, Finance, and Economics 1(1), 32–45.
Honey-Roses, J., Anguelovski, I., Bohigas, J., Chireh, V. K., Mr., Daher, C., Konijnendijk, C., Litt, J. S., Mawani, V., McCall, M. K., Orellana, A., Oscilowicz, E., Sánchez, U., Senbel, M., Tan, X., Villagomez, E., Zapat, O., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on public space: A review of the emerging questions. Cities&Health 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23748834.2020.1780074
Inceoglu, I., Segers, J., Bartram, D., 2012. Age-related differences in work motivation. Journal of Ocupational and Organizational Psychology 85, 300–329.
Jankelová, N., Joniaková, Z., Čajková, A., Romanová, A., 2021. Leadership competencies in communal policy. Politické Vedy 24(1), 181–204. https://doi.org/10.24040/politickevedy.2021.24.1.181-204
Jankelova, N., Joniakova, Z., Romanova, A., Remenova, K., 2020. Motivational factors and job satisfaction of employees in agriculture in the context of performance of agricultural companies in Slovakia. Agriculture Economics 66(9), 402–412. https://doi.org/10.17221/220/2020-AGRICECON
Kmecová I., 2021. How to motivate sme employees to higher work effort. Polish Journal of Management Studies 24(2), 194–209. https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2021.24.2.12
Kovačević, M., Blagojević, S., Kuzmanović, B., 2020. Sustainability of the motivation policy model for employees in state administration. Sustainability 12, 7974. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197974
Kucharcikova, A., Miciak, M., 2018. The application of human capital efficiency management towards the increase of performance and competitiveness in an enterprise operating in the field of distribution logistics. Nase More 65(4), 276–283. https://doi.org/10.17818/NM/2018/4SI.21
Lazarević, D., Dobrodolac, M., Švadlenka, L., Stanivuković, B., 2020. A model for business performance improvement: A case of the postal company. Journal of Business Economics and Management 21(2), 564–592. https://doi.org/10.3846/jbem.2020.12193
Ministerstvo pôdohospodárstva a rozvoja vidieka Slovenskej republikcy. 2021. Správa o lesnom hospodárstve v Slovenskej republike za rok 2020, Zelená správa. Národné lesnícke centrum, Zvolen.
Mura, L., 2021. Internationalization of Slovak family enterprises - Territorial approach. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge 9(2), 109–118. https://doi.org/10.37335/ijek.v9i2.147
Mura, L., Zsigmond, T., Machová, R., 2021. The effects of emotional intelligence and ethics of SME employees on knowledge sharing in Central-European countries. Oeconomia Copernicana 12(4), 907–934. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.030
Musa, H., Rech, F., Chen Y., Musova, Z., 2022. The deterioration of financial ratios during the COVID-19 pandemic: Does corporate governance matter? Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia 22(1), 219–242. https://doi.org/10.2478/foli-2022-0011
Myskova, R., Hajek, P., 2016. The effect of managerial sentiment on market-to-book ratio. Transformations in Business & Economics 15(2A), 498–513.
Nedeliakova, E., Panak, M., Ponicki, J., Sousek, R., 2016. Progressive management tools for quality improvement. 195–198. https://doi.org/10.2991/esm-16.2016.45
Paunescu, C., Matyus, E., 2020. Resilience measures to dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence from Romanian micro and small enterprises. Management & Marketing-Challenges for the Knowledge Society 15, 439–457. https://doi.org/10.2478/mmcks-2020-0026
Pereira-Moliner, J., López-Gamero, M. D., Font, X., Molina-Azorín, J. F., Tarí, J. J., Pertusa-Ortega, E. M., 2021. Sustainability, competitive advantages and performance in the hotel industry: A synergistic relationship. Journal of Tourism and Services 23(12), 132–149. https://doi.org/10.29036/jots.v12i23.282
Peterson, M., 2004. What men and women value at work: implications for workplace health. Gender Medicine 1(12), 106–124.
Pruneda, G., 2014. Determinantes y evolución de la motivación de los trabajadores en un contexto de crisis económica. El caso de España. Papers Revista de Sociologia 99(1), 41–72. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/papers/v99n1.514
Revutska, O., Antlová, K., 2022. Application of agile management approaches in selected automotive companies in Liberec and Central Bohemian regions. Economics and Management 25(3), 174–189. https://doi.org/10.15240/tul/001/2022-3-011
Richterová, K. a kol., 2009. Prieskumy pre marketingový manažment. SOFA, Bratislava.
Rimarcik, M., 2007. Statistika pre prax. Marian Rimarcik, Slovakia.
Sánchez-Sellero, M. C., Sánchez-Sellero, P., Cruz-González, M. M., Sánchez-Sellero, F. J., 2018. Determinants of job satisfaction in the Spanish wood and paper industries: A comparative study across Spain. Drvna Industrija 69(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.5552/drind.2018.1711
Sekova, M., Vetrakova, M., Durian, J., 2016. The proposal of intercultural competency model of managers in multinational companiesglobalization and its socio-economic consequences. In 16th International Scientific Conference on Globalization and its Socio-Economic Consequences, PTS I-V. : proceedings of the conference. 2016, pp. 1972–1979.
Skýpalová, R., Šikýř, M., Urban, R., 2022. A study on employee experience with shift work. Economics and Sociology 15(3), 143–158. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2022/15-3/8
Smerek, L., Vetrakova, M., 2020. Difference in human resources development in various types of companies. Polish Journal of Management Studies 21(2), 398–411. https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2020.21.2.28
Stacho, Z., Stachova, K., Hudakova, M., Stasiak-Betlejewska, R., 2017. Employee adaptation as key activity in human resource management upon implementing and maintaining desired organisational culture. Serbian Journal of Management 12(2), 305–315. https://doi.org/10.5937/sjm12-10340
Vetrakova, M., Smerek, L., 2019. Competitiveness of Slovak enterprises in central and eastern European region. E & M Ekonomie a Management 22(4), 36–51. https://doi.org/10.15240/tul/001/2019-4-003
Vnoučková, L., 2013. Employee learning and development in organisations. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science 6(3), 179–189. https://doi.org/10.7160/ERIESJ.2013.060305
Vrabcová, P., Urbancová, H., 2022. Holistic human resource management as a tool for the intergenerational cooperation and sustainable business. Agricultural Economics 68(4), 117–126. https://doi.org/10.17221/399/2021-AGRICECON
World Health Organization, 2020. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefng on COVID-19. models [WWW Document]. URL https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefingon-covid-19-11-march-2020
Xanthakis, G., 2019. Motivation process during the economic crisis: The evidence of Greek structural design engineers. Journal of Human Resource Management 22(2), 41–51.